• Editing refers to the preparation of a text for publication, by correcting & revising the draft
  • Revision & editing play an important role in the completion & composition of a professional/official writing
  • Accuracy, transparency & effectiveness — the prerequisites of professional/official documents


  • Perfection needs practice
  • Just as actors need long rehearsals to fine-tune their stage performances, careful editing makes the written work error-free & polished
  • The third step in the writing process (step 1 > planning what to write; step 2 > writing it)
  • Improving what has already been written
  • Editing cannot coincide with the writing of the first draft
  • The first draft is spontaneously written
  • The writing of the first draft becomes slow & tedious if we try to improve it bit by bit and achieve perfection
  • Worrying too much about the final outcome distracts the writer from building the main text of the document


  • Reading the entire manuscript thoroughly
  • Checking for accuracy
  • Identify the errors related to usage, grammar, punctuation & ensure that the language used is accurate & appropriate
  • Deleting unnecessary parts
  • While revising the first draft do away with all unnecessary words/ phrases /sentences / expressions & paragraphs
  • Augmenting unsubstantiated & depleted sections
  • Add the relevant material to those sections of the document lacking in specific details
  • Recasting paragraphs
  • Paragraphs must be recast to ensure consistency in the ideas projected & to create the desired impact on the reader
  • Moving paragraphs around
  • The written manuscript must be unfolded in a logical & systematic manner 
  • Rewriting the Beginnings & Endings
  • The beginning & the end of a passage/text is likely to be remembered for a longer time
  • Editing the opening & closing paragraphs of a document is essential to make it effective
  • Checking for Consistency & Balance
  • Care must be taken to change/alter/delete portions of the text for the sake of proper arrangement of ideas
  • Restore balance by giving each part of the discussion its due attention, focus & weightage
  • Introducing variety
  • Repetitive words, similar phrases etc. make a text monotonous
  • Variety in style should be made by
  • Mixing simple, compound & complex sentences
  • Using an elaborate sentence structure
  • By using more verbs than nouns
  • By avoiding long strings of compound nouns
  • Using transitions wherever required
  • Linkers must be effectively used to communicate the overall idea in a coherent manner
  • Restoring order & shape
  • Writing a document in various writing styles confuses the reader
  • The style of various sections must be harmonized to give the document a unified coherent image
  • Choosing appropriate tone & style
  • Ensure that the text has the desired tone & style
  • Putting mind over matter
  • Avoid expressions that may sound controversial, bizarre & libellous statements
  • Ensuring Consistency in Documentation
  • All the references in the text must be properly cited
  • The bibliographical details should be sequenced as per MLA/APA/Chicago Manual format
  • Ensure that all the pages in the document are correctly numbered & the chapters numbered with consistency
  • Match the items listed in the table of contents to the text of the document
  • Ensure consistency in the space b/w paragraphs & in the margin on both the sides of the text

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